The Synaptophysin (SYN) gene is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene are associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). The SYN gene product is a 38 kD glycoprotein that is localized to the membrane of synaptic vesicles. Using immunohistochemistry, synaptophysin can be identified in a range of neural and neuroendocrine tissues, including neurons of the central nervous system, cells of the adrenal medulla, thyroid and pancreatic islets. As a specific marker for these tissues, it can be used to identify tumors originating from them, such as neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoid, small-cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States with an estimated 50,000 deaths in 2016. Colonoscopy is the leading CRC screening strategy, and there is strong evidence that the removal of polyps detected by colonoscopy can prevent the development of CRC. However, colonoscopy screenings only provide partial protection due to the limitations of current polyp detection techniques and human factors such as the skill of the endoscopist. These contribute to diagnostic miss rates of up to 25%. In a new study published in Nature Medicine, an international team of researchers used the BioGenex automated molecular pathology staining system to develop a fluorescence colonoscopy technique that can accurately identify a polyp biomarker (i.e. c-Met) and thus improve polyp detection during colonoscopy screenings.
By Marcos Arribas-Layton, PhD. June 7, 2016
Like many cancers, breast cancers are highly diverse with a range of distinct clinical outcomes. Breast cancers dependent on hormone signaling (ER/PR) or on EGF-receptor (HER2/neu) typically have the most positive prognosis. Tumors lacking these receptors expression, referred to as Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), currently have no targeted therapies available. Five-year survival rates plummet from nearly 99% for localized tumors to 24% in late stage cancers and therefore correct identification of breast cancer subtypes at early stage is critical for treatment effectiveness.
Researchers speculate that miRNAs are potential biomarker candidates for early detection and prognosis prediction, because dysregulation of miRNA has been widely reported in cancers1. Recent studies have tested miRNAs as predictive biomarkers for determining TNBC patient’s prognosis. A four-miRNA signature (miR-16, miR-125b, miR-155 and miR374a) correlated with shorter overall patient survival1. A different panel of four miRNAs (miR-27a, -30e, -155, and -493) could separate TNBC into two distinct subgroups, high risk “core basal” tumors (basal CK5/6-and/or EGFR-positive) compared to lower risk “5 negative” tumors (negative for all five markers; ER, PR, HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR) 1-2. These results may help doctors decide which TNBC patient may require more aggressive treatment.
May 18, 2016
In a new study, published in Nature’s Blood Cancer Journal, researchers using the Xmatrx FISH automation system identified MCL-1 as a target for therapy in resistant Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). NHL is a type of cancer that starts in the lymphatic system, a part of the immune system, and can spread to various organs including bone marrow, liver and brain. NHL is one of the most common cancers in the United States, accounting for about 4% of all cancers. In 2016 an estimated 73,000 people will be diagnosed with NHL and 20,000 people will die from this cancer in the US. On average, the survival rate for people with NHL (stages I-IV) over five years is 69% and over ten years drops to 59%. Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fever, belly pain, or chest pain while treatments may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem-cell transplant, or medications. Since there is not a standard screening test for non-symptomatic individuals, NHL is often not diagnosed until the later stages, which have less favorable prognosis rates.
May 12, 2016
Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men and women combined in the United States. In 2016 about 140,000 people will be diagnosed and 50,000 will die from this disease. On average, the lifetime risk of developing colon cancer is about 5%, however, this varies widely according to individual risk factors. About 72% of cases arise in the colon and about 28% in the rectum. In recent years, introduction of a new adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage III colon cancer, was very successful and significantly increased disease-free survival in these patients. However, there was no improvement in disease-free survival for patients with earlier-stage (stage I and II) disease due to the lack of simple, reliable criteria for the identification of patients who are at high risk for relapse. Now, a groundbreaking study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, demonstrated that CDX2 antibodies from BioGenex (Clone CDX2-88) can be employed in a new prognostic approach and help save lives of stage II Colon Cancer patients.
Apr 22, 2016
BioGenex has a rich history of innovation in the field of Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and In situ Hybridization (ISH) and a strong intellectual portfolio, consisting of several US and foreign-issued patents, which not only revolutionize precision medicine but also support the environment by promoting the use of Green non-toxic reagents and reducing toxic waste and include:
Apr 21, 2016
Urothelial Carcinoma (UCC, also known as transitional cell carcinoma) is a cancer that starts in the urothelial cells, which line the inside of the bladder and other parts of the urinary tract. According to the American Cancer Society there were over 76,000 new cases of bladder cancer diagnosed and over 15,000 deaths from advanced bladder cancer in the United States in 2014. At stage I, the 5-year survival rate is about 88% but at stage IV, the 5-year survival rate falls to 15%. Poor prognosis and ineffective therapies for patients with advanced bladder cancer make the discovery of new drugs very important for the treatment of this common disease.
In a pioneering study published last month in Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, researchers at Agensys Inc. identified the SLITRK6 protein as a new UCC biomarker and developed a novel antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting SLITRK6 for the treatment of metastatic bladder cancer. Recent advances in the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) technology and two recently approved ADCs have brought this drug class to the forefront of drug development in oncology.
Mar 22, 2016
The incidence of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, has doubled in the past 40 years. Globally, in 2012, melanoma occurred in 232,000 people and resulted in 55,000 deaths. In 2016, it is estimated that there will be 76,380 new cases of melanoma in the United States and 10,130 deaths from the disease. If melanoma is diagnosed and treated early, it is typically curable, but if it is not, melanoma becomes hard to treat and is often fatal.
Mar 3, 2016
Prostate Cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of male cancer in the USA. It is estimated that 233,000 new cases and 29,480 deaths may occur due to prostate cancer this year in the USA. Currently available diagnostic methods do not have major impact on disease out-come, highlighting the urgent need for new approaches for diagnosis and prognosis.